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Full text of "Fish and Wildlife Management Report October 1, 1958"

No. 43. October 1, 1956. 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 
REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife 



Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



T it B L E OF CONTENTS 
No. 43 October 1, 1953 



Page 

Bear Investigation Programme, Swastika District* 

« by N. D. Patrick 1 

Accuracy of Beaver Transects. - by R. Boultbee 5 

Spring Marten Trapping, Gogama District, 195$ • 

- by B. G. Johnson 14 

Chapleau District Marten Research, April 24th - May 14th, 

1953. - by V. Crichton 16 

Live Fisher Trapping, Pembroke District, 1953. 

- by W. R. Catton 17 

Predator Control - Wolf Poisoning, Port Arthur District, 
1957-53. - by C. a. Rettie 20 

Raccoon Harvest, Lake Simcoe District, 1957-53. 

- by J. S. Dorland 23 

Mourning Dove Road Count, Lake Erie District, 1957. 

- by L. J. Stock 24 

Wetland Work in New York State. - by G. F. Boyer , 2 5 

Waterfowl Breeding Ground Survey in Accessible Areas of 

Sioux Lookout District, 1953. - by D. W. Simkin 23 

Waterfowl Census, Whitefish Lake, Port Arthur District. 

- by Peter Nunan 32 



- 2 - 



Pap.e 

Lake Erie District Hunter Dag Check. 3 5 

- compiled by L. J. Stock 

Kenora District Creel Census, 1957. 

- compiled by P. Graham 45 

A Creel Census of the Gull Bay Area, Port Arthur District^ 

1957o - by C. A. Rettie 49 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRa-DEPaRTMENTaL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 



BEAR INVESTIGATION PROGRAMME, SWASTIKA DISTRICT 

by 
No D. Patrick 



Over the past few years there has been a very great 
increase in the interest of hunters in bear hunting* If this trend 
continues, there is a strong possibility of bear becoming an impor- 
tant game animal in the Swastika District, if not in the whole 
province. 

Bear are presently considered as "nuisance" animals in 
Ontario, and are not protected at any season. Bounties are paid on 
bear shot by farmers in agricultural areas. Except for bounty 
records, no information on abundance, annual kill, or population 
levels is available. 

If we are to manage this species (and we will be called 
upon to do so if it reaches game status), then we must know more 
about it. For this reason, the present project is being established. 

Bear Investigation Project #1 

Objective . - 

To collect information on the bear population in the 
Swastika District and to attempt to assess its value as a game 
animal. 

Immediate Goal s- 

There are two important and separate phases to the objective 
outlined above. Hence, two projects are suggested. 

Project I A g- 

A project aimed at assessing the spring bear hunt in terms 
of numbers of hunters, tourist value, and numbers of bears killed 

Project I B s- 

A project aimed at collecting biological data available 
from bears killed in an attempt to determine reproductive rate and 
age and sex composition of the population. 

Proj e ct I A 

Procedure . - 

(a) Arrange to have all tourist outfitters contacted to 
determine the number of spring bear hunters accommo- 
dated. 



- 2 - 

(b) Prepare a questionnaire forn similar to that completed 
by moose hunters for use of spring bear hunters. 

(c) Attempt to have each bear hunter complete a question- 
naire form. 

(d) Analyse the data resulting from the above. 

Basic Work Plan s- 

(a) Assistant Senior Conservation Officer to carry out 
Project I A. 

(I) Prepare questionnaire. 

(II) Distribute to Conservation Officers. 

(Ill) Collect completed forms and analyse, with 
assistance from Biologist. 

P ro.ject I B 

Procedure ; - 

(a) Investigate literature available on bear. 

(b) Contact Maple re information required. 

(c) Contact H. C. Black, Cornell University, N.Y. State, 
regarding exchange material. 

(d) Prepare collection of biological data from bear kills. 

(e) Analyse data in conjunction with (b) & (c) above. 
Basic Work Plan s - 

(a) Biologist to establish project and carry out prelim- 
inary work. 

(b) District Fish and Wildlife staff to be instructed and 
brought into project as it develops. 

(c) Data to be accumulated and analysed before next spring 
hunt. 

Project I B 

Prelimina ry Deve lopment s - 

Investigation of the available literature and consultation 
with research people at Maple indicate that very little information 
is available about black bears. Mr. Hugh Black, currently conducting 



- 3 - 

a black bear research programme in New York State, was contacted and 
arrangements made for an exchange of material and information. Thus 
far, the following method of handling bear is suggested. 

(1) Obtain all material possible from every bear kill 
available. 

(2) The following outline should be followed in collecting 
datas- 



Date of kill. 

Township of kill. 

Type of kill (bounty, hunter, etc.) 

Weight of whole animal. 

Weight of animal without hide. 

Weight of animal without insides (rough dressed). 

Measurements (width and length) of front paw pads. 

Measurements (width and length) of canine teeth. 

Cursory examination of stomach contents. 

Report of bear's activities at time of kill. 

Report of cubs or other bears with specimen at time 

of kill. 
Collection of skull and reproductive organs. 



-. u - 



if 




ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

BEAR HUNTERS QUESTIONNAIRE 



Licence # Address 



TTToT) CSTr e e t 



Name 



" (Town)""" (Prove or State) 

Phone Ho. 

Did you kill a male Female Cub 

In what areas did you hunt? 



n/here did you kill your bear? 



On what date did you kill your bear? 



What tine of day did you kill your bear - Lorning 



Afternoon 
Evening 



Approximate weight of bear killed 
How many days did you hunt bear? 



How many bear did you see? - Adults with no cubs 

Females with cubs 



Comments on present bear season 



Comments on guiding services 



How much money did you spend for travel? 



Accommodations, meals, guides, refreshments, licence, etc, ^_ 



How much money did you invest this year in bear hunting equipment 
such as guns, clothing, etc. jfe 



THaNK YOU I 



- 5 - 

ACCURACY OF BEAVER TRANSECTS 

by 
R. Boultbee 



In May, 195$ a paper was circulated dealing with the 
design of a beaver house census based on trappers* counts. The 
present paper similarly treats the 1957 Fort Frances Beaver Transect 
to attach confidence limits and consider ways of improving the 
survey. The beaver transect is a much better source of information 
than trappers 9 counts. 

The 1957 Fort Frances Beaver Transect was two hundred and 
forty-eight miles long, laid out in four lines, in accordance with 
Mr. Standfield 9 s method. The results were placed on a map at two 
miles to an inch and from this map the basic data for this study 
were taken. Appendix one lists the number of houses in each succes- 
sive inch of line on the map. 

The first problem is the choice of a satisfactory sampling 
unit. The variability in house count from unit to unit is the basis 
of the confidence limits we are looking for. If the sampling units 
are small some will show no house count. If they are made succes- 
sively smaller the pile-up of units with no house count will introduce 
serious distortion. Evidently there is a minimum unit that avoids 
zero house counts or at least brings an acceptable proportion of 
such counts. 

Figure one illustrates the effects of different sample 
unit sizes. The lowest distribution in the figure is that obtained 
by taking four inches at a time from Appendix one. There is a 
central tendency and there are no units with zero counts. Proceeding, 
upward distributions are shown based on successively smaller units. 
Three inch units appear to be acceptable. Two inch units show some 
accumulation of zero counts. One inch units show such a distortion 
from piled-up zero counts that they are of no use. Thus three inch 
units are the shortest that can be used. In this paper four inch 
units are used to retain a safety margin. 

Using four inch units and applying two refinements explained 
farther on the following confidence limits were obtained for the 
1957 Fort Frances Beaver Transect; 

70 percent confidence limits = t 10.7$ 

$0 percent confidence limits = ± 13*3% 

90 percent confidence limits = £ 17«3$ 

95 percent confidence limits = t 20.$% 

99 percent confidence limits = t 2$. 3% 

In effect the 90 percent confidence limits, for instance, 
say that if similar surveys were run for a century only ten of the 
one hundred surveys would vary by more than 17.3 percent from the 
true house count. Under the circumstances the accuracy of the 
transect is quite good. 



: 



■ ' r 









- 6 - 

Stating the confidence limits of the transect might be 
considered an end in itself, but it would be a mistake not to use 
the results to improve future surveys. For instance we should find 
the result of using sampling units larger than the minimum. Figure 
two shows the results of grouping the data of Appendix one in larger 
and larger units. Some play of chance is seen in the location of 
points but the placing of the curve is clear. Units shorter than 
three inches have a pile-up of zero counts which causes the standard 
error to decrease, giving a false result. From three inches to 
thirteen inches the standard error is constant. For units more than 
thirteen inches long a new type of distortion is introduced. This 
enlargement of the standard error is caused by fewness of sampling 
units. The transect was long enough to supply only seven units 
fourteen inches long. If the transect had been longer this form of 
distortion would not have appeared until a still longer unit was used, 

An important principle is thus found. The size of sampling 
unit, over a wide range, does not affect the accuracy of the survey. 
The key to the principle is that a certain total area of samples will 
give the same result whether taken in large or small units. There 
are practical limits however, in that units should not be so small 
as to accumulate zero house counts nor so large as to be few in 
number. The optimum range can be found by trial and error. 

The optimum range of sample unit size gives considerable 
freedom of choice. If the designer of the census is using a random 
sample rather than a transect he can shoose a unit size convenient 
for examination from the air according as he favours orbiting or 
consecutive strips. He can also compromise with the need to save 
flying time between units by making them larger. 

No matter what design is used it will be found that a very 
large area will have to be surveyed to reduce the confidence limits 
notably. For instance to reduce the 90 percent confidence limits 
of the 1957 Fort Frances Beaver Transect from 17.3$ to 10.0$ it would 
be necessary to increase the length of the transect from two hundred 
and forty-eight miles to seven hundred and sixteen, almost a three- 
fold increase. Because of the large area required in the census it 
is of utmost importance to eliminate extraneous sources of variance. 
This was explained in the previous paper based on trappers* counts 
and it was shown therein that a very significant reduction in samp- 
ling error could be had by eliminating the effect of "miles of creek 
per sample unit". 

The census taker will profit by measuring any feature 
shown to contain significant variability. Forest types may be found 
significant but the writer has not yet tested them. Land types and 
forest types are probably related. The four lines of the 1957 
Fort Frances Beaver transect showed obvious variations which may be 
connected with land types or forest types and this variance was 
eliminated in arriving at the confidence limits given earlier. Lines 
one and three were taken entire as they were quite short. Lines two 
and four were each broken in halves. This gave six sections of 
transect requiring five degrees of freedom. The following table of 



- 7 - 



variance analysis resultss 
Variance 



Sums of Degrees of 
Squares Freedom 



Between Lines 152.27 
Residual 209.60 



361.87 



5 
24 



29 



Mean 
Squares 

30. /,5 

8.73 

12.48 



Variance 
Ratios Significance 



3.49 



Better than 
5% pt. 



The principle of segregating extraneous variance is explai- 
ned schematically in Appendix two. 

As a result of segregation the sampling variance was 
reduced from 12.48 to 8.73 • A correction for finite population is 
made by multiplying 8.73 by (1-a/A) where "a" is the total area of 
the sample and "A" is the total area of Fort Frances District 
(7>192 square miles). In this case the correction was too small to 
be of any account. 

Transects of random samples lend themselves to the accumula- 
tion of annual data. The effects of this procedure are gradually to 
broaden the basis of the survey and stabilize the confidence limits. 
Extraneous variance between successive years 9 censuses will be elimi- 
nated like that due to "miles of creeks" or "sections of lines" but 
unless there were a significant change in the population this parti- 
cular segregation would not be necessary. Conversely if a signifi- 
cant change in population numbers were to take place it would be 
proven by segregation. 

Appendix three is meant to facilitate the design of future 
surveys in Fort Frances District. It is only a guide and should be 
useful in other districts where the average house count is about one 
per square mile. Future surveys will in turn modify the appendix. 
It is drawn up on the basis of sampling units of ten square miles but 
can be adapted to other unit areas. For instance, for sample units 
of five square miles, the sample number should be doubled. The 
optimum range must be kept in mind, and enough units must be included 
to allow degrees of freedom for segregating extraneous variance. 



- s - 

FIGURE I - Distributions with units of various length 
showing distortion with small units. 



-3 



Cv2 
-31 



One Inch Units 



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House Counts 



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House Counts 



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- 10 - 



FIGURE III - 



Average 



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Average 



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Line 1 



Average 
jflM r^ .H^H , k L . ne 2 (F . rst Half) 



Line 2 (Second Half) 



Line 3 



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General Average 



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FIGURE IV - 



- 11 - 



Average 



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House Counts 



=sa All Lines 



- 12 - 



APPENDIX ONE - Basic Data 





Hou: 


se Counts in Successive I] 


nches of Line 


on the Transect Map 


Inch 


t 


House 


Inch 


House 


Inch 


House 


Number 


Count 


Number 


Count 


Number 


Count 


Line 


One 




Line Two 


cont . 


Line Four 


1 




1 


29 


1 


1 





2 




3 


30 





2 


1 


3 




4 


31 


1 


3 


1 


4 




1 


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4 





5 







33 


2 


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2 


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1 


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7 




2 


35 





7 


1 


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2 


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3 





9 




1 


37 


1 


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3 


10 




1 


33 





10 


4 


11 




1 


39 


2 


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2 


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4 


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12 


2 


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41 





13 


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42 





14 





Line 


Two 




43 


1 


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44 





16 





1 




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3 


17 


1 


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2 


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1 


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19 


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20 


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1 


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21 





6 




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1 


22 


4 


7 




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51 


1 


23 


1 


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52 





24 





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25 


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54 





26 


3 


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1 


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1 


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2 


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13 




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29 


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59 





31 


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32 


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33 


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35 


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36 


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39 





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- 13 - 

APPENDIX TV/0 - E limination of Variance Between Sect i ons of Line . 

The distributions of house counts on the six sections of 
line is shown in fugure three. The average for each distribution is 
shown with an inverted arrow. The six distributions are centred 
around six different averages and when they are totalled as at the 
bottom the variance between averages is included. The distribution 
at the bottom of figure three is the same as that at the bottom of 
figure one. In figure four the same distributions are shown shifted 
laterally so that all six averages are aligned with the general 
average. In this manner the variance between averages, or in other 
words between sections of line, is removed. When the adjusted dis- 
tributions are totalled as at the bottom of figure four there is no 
inclusion of variance between sections of line. If the sum of squares 
of the deviations is worked out for this last total distribution it 
will be found to be 210.17 corresponding to the more exact figure of 
209.60 in the table of variance analysis. 

APPENDIX THREE - Confidence Limits in Per Cent for Sample Numbers 

from 14 to 30 (Size of Sampling Unit is 10 Square 
Miles) 



Sample 


70$ 


m% 


90fo 


95fo 


Number 


L/ » Xj . 


C. L. 


J-j . 


C. L. 


14 


11. d 


14.9 


19.9 


24.6 


15 


11.4 


14.3 


18.9 


23.4 


16 


10.9 


13.7 


18.1 


22.3 


17 


10.6 


13.2 


17.4 


21.4 


18 


10.2 


12.8 


16.8 


20.5 


19 


9.9 


12.4 


16.2 


19.8 


20 


9.6 


12.0 


15.8 


19.2 


21 


9.4 


11.7 


15.3 


18.6 


22 


9.1 


11.4 


14.9 


18.1 


23 


8.9 


11.1 


14.5 


17.6 


24 


8.7 


10.8 


14.1 


17.1 


25 


8.5 


10,6 


13.8 


16.8 


26 


8.3 


10.4 


13.5 


I6.4 


27 


8.2 


10.2 


13.3 


16.0 


28 


8.0 


10.0 


13.0 


15.7 


29 


7.9 


9.8 


12.7 


15.4 


30 


7.7 


9.6 


12.5 


15.1 




For example if < 


)0% confidence 


limits of 13 « 


,0% are satis- 



factory it will be necessary to use 28 randomly placed areas, each 
10 square miles in area. This is a total of 280 square miles to be 
censused. If it is desired to use a transect instead of random areas 
the transect should be designed to cover an area of 280 square miles. 

Note that variance between broad land conditions must be 
eliminated to obtain the above accuracies. Five degress of freedom 
were allowed for this purpose in constructing the table. In the 
body of the report this type of variance was defined as variance 
between sections of transect lines (appendix two). 



- 14 - 



SPRING MARTEN TRAPPING, GOGAMA, 19 5$ 

by 
B. G. Johnson 



During the month of April, 195$ > twelve traps were set on 
the Gogama experimental trapline for the purpose of catching marten. 
The animals were required for study with regard to when the females 
give birth to their young, and how many are in a litter. Collection 
of material was begun by the Chapleau District in 1957, and this year 
this District was asked to assist. 

On April 10, 195$? single traps were set at twelve stations 
originally used on the experimental trapline. These locations, 
numbered from 117 to 12$, run from the east end of Eastman Lake, 
south towards Akweskwa Lake and are approximately 300 yards apart in 
heavy evergreen forest. Pieces of a beaver carcass, procured from a 
trapper at Foleyet were used as bait. Five marten were caught of 
which only one was a female. She was not carrying kittens, and was 
not milking. It seems reasonable to believe that at this time of 
year the females that are carrying young do not travel as far as the 
males. The much larger percentage of males caught seems to bear 
this out. The traps were checked at three day intervals £ the weather 
for the most part was warm and sunny. When the traps were set there 
was up to two feet of snow in the bush but by April 27th, when they 
were sprung, there were only a few scattered patches. 

The whole carcass of the female marten and the heads and 
reproductive organs of the males were sent to Maple, as were the 
dried pelts. The accompanying table shows the trapping record in 
detail. 





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- 16 - 

CHAPLEaU district, marten research, 

APRIL 24th - MAY 14th, 1953 

by 
V. Crichton 



Marten trapping for the purpose of trapping pregnant marten 
for research purposes was carried out in the Chapleau District from 
April 24th to May 14th, 1953. 

Trapping took place on Crooked Lake in the Township of 
Leeson and Brackin and on the Portage between Crooked Lake and 
Missanabie Lake in Lesson Township, situated in the Chapleau Crown 
Game Preserve with the assistance of Conservation Officer H. Tuvi 
of Missanabie, 

During this period of trapping, 10 marten were trapped 
consisting of eight males and two females. 

Two female marten apparently being young adults and not 
having reached the breeding age and four male marten were released 
from the traps. 

The skulls, bacula . and reproductive tracts were collected 
and preserved and forwarded to Division of Research at Maple. 

The following is a table of dates of captures 



Number 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
3 

9 
10 



Sex 



male 

female 

male 

male 

male 

male 

male 

male 

male 

female 



Date of Capture 



Apr. 


25th, 


1953 




May 


2nd, 


1953 




May 


2nd, 


1953 




May 


2nd, 


1953 




May 


2nd, 


1953 


Released 


May 


7th, 


1953 




May 


9th, 


1953 


Released 


May 


12th, 


1953 


Released 


May 


12th, 


1953 


Released 


May 


13th, 


1953 





- 17 - 



LIVE FISHER TRAPPING, PEMBROKE DISTRICT, 1958. 

by 

W. R. Catton 



Introduction 

This report covers the live fisher trapping project carried 
out during February and March, 1958, for a total of 13 days. 

The area trapped was located in Guthrie and Clancy Town- 
ships in the south eastern part of Algonquin Park. This area was 
chosen because of its accessibility via the Shoosplin-Woods Limited 
private road. 

Bed space was supplied free of charge by the company. 
Meals were supplied at 75 cents each. 

Procedure 

Prior to actual trapping, baits were first put out on 
February 15th. The use of beaver carcasses for this baiting was 
found very effective" in particular those received from the Division 
of Research which were very strong smelling. At one trapsite a wolf 
carcass was used as bait and it too proved very successful. This 
backed up the statement of Park Ranger J. Burchat, who claimed fisher 
were so plentiful that they had more than once eaten wolves which 
were caught in snares, in the area. 

Baits were placed at roughly half mile intervals along 
the road and not more than 300 yards off it. Inspection of the 
baits took place periodically and on February 25th nine traps were 
set out. 

During the 13 days of trapping the number of traps in use 
varied from 9 to 20. On occasion up to three traps were put out at 
one bait site, depending on the abundance of tracks. A total of 
19 fisher and one marten were taken, however, one fisher escaped and 
the marten was released later. 

Traps were looked at once each day in the morning although 
on one occasion at a particularly good site we were plagued with 
squirrels closing the trap, so a late afternoon inspection to insure 
the trap wasn*t closed for the night produced a fisher which had 
entered the trap since morning inspection. 

During the period of trapping the weather for the most part 
was unseasonally mild as can be noted on the tables shown. With 
the thawing of the carcass baits we found that fisher were able to 
tear apart these carcasses and make off v/ith them. As a result, 
carcasses had to be wired to a tree, frequently out of reach and 
above the baited trap. 



- id - 



Cost Per Fisher 



In compiling the cost per fisher we have included the cost 
of operating a department vehicle and the wages of two conservation 
officers. Excluding these two items the cost per animal is less 
than $3.00. 



Gas for operation of Department vehicle 

Meals for two men @ .75?5 

Wages - two Conservation Officers - 13 days ....... 

Case of dog food and 2 oz. oil of Rodium 



• 0**00000«00 
OOO»O*eOOO*«OOOC4O»O0«OCO9O*OO«O*O0O 

oooooaoeo 



.4 35.72 
39.75 
. 306.63 
9.70 



1391. 80 

Cost per fisher (excluding C.P. Express charges, 

Pembroke to Timmins) ■■•$ 21.77 



Daily Tal l y of Traps 9 Catch and Weather 



Dat 


e 
26 


No. of 
Traps 

9 


Trap & 
Sites 

6 




Catch 


Weather 
Max. 

29 


Data 

Min . 

4 


General 


Feb. 


3 


Fisher 


Clear 


Feb. 


27 


11 


6 


2 

1 
1 


Fi3her, 

Red Squirrel 

Canada Jay 


34 


20 


Overcast 


Feb. 


23 


12 


7 


1 
1 
1 


Fisher 

Red Squirrel 

Weasel 


33 


32 


Overcast 


Mar. 


1 


12 


7 


1 


Fisher 


35 


31 


1.6" of snow 
fell. Overcast. 


Mar. 


2 


13 


7 


2 


Fisher 


36 


30 


Overcast, very 
light snow. 


Mar. 


3 


13 


7 


nil 


36 


31 


Overcast, wet 


















snow & rain. 


Mar. 


4 


17 


11 


1 


F'isher 


33 


30 


Overcast 


Mar. 
Mar. 


5 
6 


18 
15 


12 
9 


4 Fisher 
(1 escaped) 
1 Marten 
1 Fisher 


33 

37 


31 
29 


Overcast, 
trace of snow. 

Overcast with 


















snow. 


Mar. 


7 


16 


11 


2 


Fisher 


33 


22 


Clear skies. 


Mar. 


8 


20 


14 


1 


Fisher 


27 


16 


Overcast 


Mar. 


9 


19 


16 


1 
2 


Fisher 
Squirrels 


32 


18 


Partly overcast 



- 19 - 



Conclusion and Observations 



A total of 1$ fisher were live trapped and shipped to the 
Cochrane District for distribution north. This involved a total of 
175 trap days averaging 9.7 trap days per fisher . 

The use of oil of rodium and other scents was thought 
unnecessary and never tried. 

Most satisfactory results were obtained using the 32", 9x9 
trap° the shorter 28", 9x9 was not quite as effective and several 
animals were missed. On one occasion a fisher broke out of the 2$ 
inch trap while being transported in the truck to a holding pen. The 
24", 6x6 trap was thought to be too small and for this reason was 
not used. 

The number of sites trapped totalled 18 of which 10 
produced fisher. 

Of the 10 sites - 2 produced 3 fisher 

- 3 produced 2 fisher 

- 6 produced 1 fisher. 

Sex Ratio of Fisher Caught 

It was impossible to sex animals daily and a comparison of 
sexes taken by dates was not kept. At the conclusion of trapping 
operations the animals were ear tagged and tattooed. During this 
operation the animals were sexed. Animals taken included? 

9 males 8 females 1 unsexed 



- 20 - 

PREDATOR CONTROL - WOLF POISONING 
PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT 
1957 - 195S 

by 
Co A. Rettie 

In the fall of 1956 at a meeting of the Fish and Wildlife 
Staff of the Port Arthur District, it was decided to carry out some 
work on predator control. This work would consist chiefly of the 
poisoning of wolves in an effort to determine the best kind of bait, 
poison and type of set. 

Previous to this some work on predator control was started 
in Februar}^ 1956. At this time a small yard of deer was located 
on the east side of the Nipigon River approximately 1 mile south of 
the Town of Nipigon, The snow at the Nipigon snow station on Feb. 
20 and 21 was 34.1 inches. After the first visit to the yard, it 
was apparent that five or six wolves were active in the area and one 
deer carcass was found. Only a few bones and some hair were found. 
It was then decided to attempt to poison the wolves in an effort to 
save the deer. 

About this time a doe had been killed by a car in the Port 
Arthur area. This carcass and some powdered strychnine was secured 
by Wildlife Management Officer Whitefield and brought to Nipigon. 
After this carcass was thawed out, it was taken to the deer yard by 
myself and Whitefield. Here the hams, stomach, shoulders and throat 
were slit, powdered strychnine inserted in the slits and the carcass 
placed ten feet from one of the trails used by the wolves in a 
small clearing. 

This bait was observed at three-day intervals until the end 
of March. The wolves continued to use the beaten trail until March 
15 f but never once left it to examine the carcass which was in plain 
sight. However, three red foxes had visited the bait, eaten some 
from the slits and had died within 100 yards of the bait. Meanwhile, 
the wolves had driven another deer into the clearing, past the bait 
and had killed it 200 yards away. This carcass was cleaned up with 
only a few pieces of bone and some hair remaining. After March 15 
there was no sign of wolf activity in the area and it was presumed 
that they had moved to a new location. At the end of March, with 
no sign of the wolves returning, the poisoned carcass was removed and 
disposed of. 

No attempt was made at poisoning during the winter of 1956- 
57 by myself, but some work was carried on by the District Office 
Staff. 



- 21 - 

Plans were made that further work be clone on predator 
control, especially the control of wolves by poison during the winter 
of 1957-5$« With the beginning of the winter flying season by the 
Department aircraft at Port Arthur, the 195$ aerial moose surve}?" 
commenced on January 7« Flying as an observer on these flights made 
it possible to note any sign of wolf activity. On January 13, a 
pack of 12 wolves was seen on Beatty Lake in the Black Sturgeon area. 
It was decided then to carry poison and bait on all future flights 
so that during our moose survey flights, poison could be placed at 
the same time and thus eliminate any special trips with the aircraft 
for this purpose. 

For bait, several moose heads and some pieces of moose 
shank were obtained. The poison was the powdered strychnine which 
was used in 1956 but had been sealed in an airtight container. One 
moose head and three pieces of shank were carried on each flight 
from then on plus some water for freezing in the bait. Later some 
beaver carcasses and poison capsules were obtained, but no opportunity 
afforded itself for their use. 

On January 17, an effort was made to fly a survey near 
Fraser Lake. However, the plot was not reached because of bad 
weather and the aircraft was forced to swing south over Nipigon Bay 
on Lake Superior. At Out an Island four wolves were seen close to 
shore. On the island were three moose. It was decided to try a 
poison set here. The site chosen for the set was beside some rocks 
protruding above the ice, approximately 200 yards from shore and past 
which the wolves were travelling on their circuit from Outan Island 
to Grange Island. This will be referred to later as set #1. 

The moose head was frozen into the ice in a vertical 
position, nose up. The head was then slit wherever possible and 
strychnine sifted into the cuts. Around this head in a circle about 
twenty-five feet in diameter were placed the three small pieces of 
shank and these were frozen into the ice flush with the surface. 
These were also cut and the poison inserted. The bait was then left 
until it could be checked on some future flight. 

On January 21, ice and snow conditions were such that it 
was possible to drive a car across Nipigon Bay fifteen miles to 
Grange Island. The bait was checked in this way. Although the head 
had not been touched, the smaller baits were gone. One fox track 
was still visible and this, a cross fox, was found dead on the ice 
100 yards from the bait. Wolf tracks were plentiful in the area, 
but all had given the bait a wide berth. 

On January 22, a flight was made to Outan Island. On this 
trip a moose killed by wolves was located on the southwest shore of 
the island. No sign of other moose could be found and it was believed 
that of the three moose seen here on January 17, two had been driven 
off by wolves and the third one killed. The site of the kill was 
checked and only a few bones, hair and skull remained. The lower 
jaw was intact and was aged as year class VII - sex unknown. Wolf 
sign was much in evidence. 



- 22 - 

Once again the same bait and type of set was used with the 
exception that a small balsam tree was also frozen into the ice, as 
a marker • The bait was placed about 100 feet from the scene of the 
kill, which the wolves were still visiting. This will be referred 
to as Set #2. 

The following day, January 23, the aircraft passed over 
this location again, but no activity was noticed and so no landing 
was made* 

Because of other commitments for the aircraft, it was 
impossible to check these sets again until February 14* On this 
date, Set #1 was untouched, but several tracks were seen at Set #2- 
On landing, these proved to be fox tracks, but no dead animals were 
found. The small baits were covered lightly with snow from the 
previous day and when uncovered were intact, but had apparently been 
licked by some animal. On our take-off a few ravens on the ice caught 
our attention and on investigating, two dead wolves were found. 
These were male and female and had been dead for some time. The 
stomachs of both had been eaten away by ravens. The wolves were 
lying 60 feet apart and approximately 3/4 mile from the bait on 
Out an Island. Following their tracks back, it was apparent that they 
had come from this Set ff2 and must have received a lethal dose of 
strychnine by merely licking at the small baits. 

The next check of the baits was made on March 7, At this 
time, one small red fox was found dead 10 feet from Set #2, one 
raven 20 feet from Set #2 and one large red fox 200 feet from the 
same set. One small bait was gone and the moose head itself seemed 
to have been licked this time. The moose head at Set #1 still 
remained untouched. No wolf tracks wore located. 

Checks were made again on both sets on March 12 and March 
21. No animals were found on either occasion and again no wolf 
tracks were located in the area. These were the last checks made of 
the baits. 



Conclusions 

1. Timber wolves are very cautious and slow at investigating a bait. 

2. Fox are very readily attracted to a bait, 

3. Timber wolves prefer a fresh kill made by themselves to bait. 

4. Wolves when molested will abandon one circuit and move to a new 
area. 

5. Moose heads are not a good bait, but small pieces of moose meat 
are effective. 

6. Baits should be visited once a week. 
Acknowledgments 

Many thanks to Pilot A. Burtt, G. Whitefield, D. D v Agostini, 
E. J. Swift, R. Carnahan and P. Nunan for their assistance in this 
work. 



- 23 - 



RACCOON HARVEST, LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT, 1957-53 

by 
J. S. Dorland 



The following is a record of the raccoon harvest taken 
in the Lake Simcoe District under the raccoon and dog licence 
during 1957-53. 

These licences were sold only in nine of our 12 patrol 
districts. Of the 37 licences sold, 34 hunters made returns show- 
ing a harvest of 534 raccoons, or an average of 17.6 raccoons per 
hunter. 

The number of hunters hunting raccoon under this licence 
has remained relatively the same for the past three years. This 
year's harvest, however, is down somewhat from the 1955-56 figure. 

Although raccoons are fairly plentiful across our 
district, the harvest under this licence represents only a small 
fraction of the numbers we feel are taken by hunters who shoot 
them and leave them in the field. 



Raccoon Harvest Under Licence, Lake Simcoe District, 1957-53 . 

Officer 

B. Smith 
G. Armitage 
J. Catcher 
F. Bowes 
N. Sitwell 
E. Smith 
H. Van Wyck 
K. Turesdell 
District Office 



No. Licences 


Returns 




Average No. 


Sold 


Made 
2 


Harvest 
26 


Per Hunter 


2 


13 


10 


9 


263 


29 


2 


2 


43 


24 


2 


- 


- 


- 


4 


4 


3 


- 


2 


2 


4^ 


24 


6 


8 


66 


3 


2 


2 


32 


16 


5 


4 


93 


23 



37 



34 



534 



17.6 



- 24 - 

MOURNING DOVE ROAD COUNT 
LAKE ERIE DISTRICT - 1957 

by 
L. J. Stock 



This is the second successive year in which Dove counts have 
been recorded in this District, 

During 1956 counts were recorded only in September and may 
be compared to the September counts in 1957. The difference between 
the two years is due to the observances of very large flocks in 1956 
and the scarcity of records from Essex County. Flocks of up to a 
1,000 birds were noted in 1956, but in 1957 the maximum size was 40 
to 50, In Essex County the birds per mile figure was 3.69 which is 
much greater than for any other part of the district. 

In August there is a sharp rise in the percentage of birds 
in flocks and a corresponding, though smaller, reduction in pairs 
and singles. By mid-September there is a sharp reduction in the 
count in some sections, probably due to migration. 

A substantial population of Doves remains in Essex and Kent 
throughout the winter. Flocks of up to 200 have been observed in 
mid-February. 



table: 



Statistics for the 1957 Count are tabulated in the following 



Statistics for the Mourning Dove Road Counts, 
L ake Erie District, 1957. 





Number 


of Doves 


Seen 




Total 
Count 

324 
155 
258 

375 

374 

I486 


Total 

Miles 

2303 

515 

1506 

2099 
1751 

8174 




Month' 


In Flocks 
3 Or More 

No. JL 

36 11 

14 9 

27 11 

164 44 

188 50 

429 29 
34 21 

2852 79 
188 50 


Pai 

No. 

56 

39 
60 
56 
41 

252 
20 

202 
41 


rs 
i. 

35 

50 
46 

29 
22 

34 
24 
11 
22 


Singles 
No. c £_ 

176 54 
63 41 

111 43 
99 27 

104 28 

553 37 

91 55 

373 10 

104 28 


Doves Per 
100 Miles 


May 

June 

July 

August 

September 


14 
30 
17 
18 
21 


District 
Totals 


18 


Pelee Is. 
July 


165 


119 


139 


September 
1956 


3629 


5124 


70.5 


September 
1957 


374 


1751 


21 



-25'- 



WETLAND WORK IN NEW YORK STATE 



by 

G. F. Boyer 



New York may be regarded as the pioneer state along the 

Atlantic Fly way to engage in wetland development work. Today the 

state ranks among the highest in this type of waterfowl management. 

Co-operation with the State Conservation Department has been given 

by agencies such as the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and sports- 
men's groups. 

Some of the work carried out include detailed inventories 
of the existing wetlands by districts, construction of impoundments, 
"pot holes'" and "paddys", the release of hand-reared ducks, for the 
most part mallards, but also some pintails, redheads and others. 
"Work has been done to find ways and means of keeping impoundments 
from deteriorating and other projects such as banding have been 
carried out as part of the overall program. 

As part of the general wetland aquisition program, the 
state already has 35,000 acres picked out and in use and it is 
felt that eventually 250,000 acres should be under state or federal 
control, not necessarily in ownership. This land would be improved 
for waterfowl production and migration usage. 

Two of the important wetlands projects which I visited 
last summer were the Oak Orchard Refuge (450 acres) and the Perch 
River Development area (2,000 acres). These areas contain open 
water, marsh and flooded woodlands. The former is a refuge but 
"paddies 5 "' have been constructed nearby and public shooting will be 
allowed and the number of hunters will be regulated. Perch River 
will be used as a waterfowl production area and for public shooting 
under a controlled system. "Paddies" are also to be constructed here. 

A word about "paddies". One which I examined was about 
50 acres in area and was planted with grain crops such as barley. 
It consisted of a flat field, diked to hold about six inches of 
water. These areas are flooded in the fall so that ducks will 
flight in. The "paddies" will be drained after the spring migration 
and then replanted. An allotted number of hunters will be allowed 
in. 

As part of breeding ground improvements, attempts are 
made to break up the shoreline and in general to provide attractive 
habitat for waiting areas for paired ducks. At Perch Lake this has 
been done by the construction of nesting islands and "pot holes" 
in addition to the already irregular outline of the flooded area. 

"Pot holes" are small ponds of from one to five acres which 
are bulldozed out and are roughly two feet deep. They have no 
inlets or outlet. Usually nesting islands are constructed in these 



- 26 - 

ponds. At Perch Lake there was a large number of these scattered 
across a comparatively dry meadow near the impoundment, "Pot holes" 
are especially attractive to paired blue-winged teal, mallards and 
blacks. An important function is to give mated pairs seclusion 
out of sight of other pairs of the same species. In large open 
areas where the birds can see each other there is considerable strife 
and the amount of marsh or water required to support each pair is 
very large. This is a psychological aspect of behaviour. Other 
management practices employed on these two major developments were 
the erection of wood duck boxes and nest baskets for blacks and 
mallards. 

In the case of wood ducks the erection of boxes needs 
little explanation as the beneficial results are well known. The 
nest baskets are a newer technique. 55 

In addition I visited several small marsh developments 
ranging from five to fifteen acres in area. Most of these were on 
private land and were operated under lease. They are put in at the 
request of the land owner and involve no loss of property rights. 

The first area I visited was in the vicinity of Warsaw 
about 30 miles southeast of Buffalo. I was surprised at first to 
find that the impoundments were all on the heights of land. I had 
expected them to be down in the river valleys. The reason, of 
course, is simple. The drainage starts at the height of land, and 
in this part of the country the hilltops were usually very flato It 
meant that a reasonably small dike could contain a large water 
area of very shallow depth and the spring run off would be at a 
minimum thus avoiding the dangers and destruction of flooding. 

The primary purpose of these impoundments is to increase 
waterfowl production which results in improved shooting. Other 
benefits include water conservation and fishing opportunities. Many 
of the impoundments were stocked with species of pan fish. 

Very little planting was found necessary as the native 
aquatics soon became abundant. 

Often "pot holes" were constructed in conjunction with 
these impoundments. Many of the projects were constructed in areas 
which contained a certain amount of swampland, Wood duck boxes 
proved beneficial here. 

As already mentioned an irregular shoreline is highly 
important to increase the number of nesters in an impoundment. 
"Potholes" are also most useful in adding to the seclusion for the 
paired birds. 

Spillways on the dikes are necessary to prevent flooding 
should the concrete outlets become plugged. These outlets require 
some maintenance in keeping them clean of trash and from beaver 



* See Duck nesting Baskets by G. F. Boyer, Fish and Wildlife 
Management Report No. 41, June 1, 195#» PP» 27- 2$ • 



- 27 - 

activities. Sometimes destruction is carried from muskrat burrows. 

A good remedy was found in Hew York by emplacing sheets 
of gypsum board along the dikes above and below water level. 
Facings of gravel about J inch thick from water line to bottom are 
also useful. Installation is effective after damage has been done. 
Therefore, it is better to wait in case this form of maintenance 
is not found necessary. 



- 2d - 

WATERFOWL BREEDING GROUND SURVEY 
IN ACCESSIBLE AREAS OF SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, 195$, 

by 
Do We Sirakin 



On July 7 ? $> 9* 11 and 12, 195$ flights were made over 
some of the areas which bear the brunt of waterfowl shooting in the 
fall. A total of 14 hours and 10 minutes were flown covering 
approximately 63$ linear miles of shoreline. 

Originally 4 large separate areas were to be sampled but 
due to a mechanical breakdown of the helicopter, modifications were 
made to get coverage of the areas deemed most productive and areas 
II and III were abbreviated. 

I - Minnitaki Lake 

This lake is generally an unproductive one even in relation 
to the rest of the lakes in this sparsely populated duck country. 
However, two areas namely the Rice River and English river areas of 
Minnitaki do get a fair amount of gunning pressure in the fall. It 
is believed that ducks shot during the fall are merely migrating 
ducks from the north lured into the area by the fair stands of wild 
rice in the area. 

This assumption was proven to be correct upon completion of 
flying on the lake. The results were as follows. 

TABLE I - Waterfowl Observations on Minnitaki Lake . 

American American 
Merganser Go Id en eye Mal lard Black Ring-neck Unidentified 



Male 
Female 
Sex ? 
Broods 



Total 

Grand 
Total 



4 

14 

4$ 

10 
Average 
size 15*9) 

125 

284 



6 

5$ 
5 
Average 



2 

$ 

20 

5 

Average 



size (3.6) size (2.$) 



$2 



54 



2 




1 


11 


1 


1 




(4) 


(2 i) 


(4) 


6 i 


15 





Approximately 200 linear miles were flown on Minnitaki Lake: 
therefore 1.4 ducks were observed /mi.. If mergansers were excluded 
this figure would be reduced to .75 / mi.. 

Obviously the ducks hunted in the fall in the rice beds are 
produced elsewhere. 



II - 



- 29 - 

East End of Lac Seul and Smaller Waters East and North of 
Sioux Lookout, 



These waters are not subjected to much hunting pressure but 
a flight in the area seemed in order to determine if this area fed 
the rice bed areas closer to town, 



It can be seen from table II that this area is definitely 
not a big producer of waterfowl. 

TABLE II - Waterfowl Observations E. End of Lac Seul and Waters 
E. and N. of S ioux Lookout 

American American 

Merganser Goldeneye Mallard Black Ring-neck Unidentified 



Male 




Female 


4 


Sex ? 


40 


Broods 


4 


Av, Size 


5.5 



Total 

Grand 
Total 



66 



144 



5 

32 

5 
5.2 



63 



1 
1 

1 



7 



Approximately 200 linear miles were flown in this area? 
therefore, .72 ducks were seen / 1 mi«. If mergansers were excluded 
this figure would be reduced to .39 / mi.. 

Ill - Cedar Lake, Cliff Lake and Adjacent Lakes . 

This area is similar to Minnitaki Lake, that is a fair 
population of ducks is hunted in the fall in local areas characterized 
by rice beds. A very low breeding population was found as shown in 
Table III. 

TABLE III - Waterfowl Observations Cedar Lake, Cliff Lake and 
A d j a c en t Wat e r s . 



Male 
Femalt 
Sex ? 
Brood 



American 
Merganser 



11 



American 
Goldeneye 



14 



Mallard 



Unidentified 



1 
7 
3 i 



Grand Total 



39 



Approximately 60 miles of shoreline were flown in this area; 
therefore .65 ducks were seen / mi.. If mergansers were excluded 
this would be reduced to .47 ducks / mi.. 



- 30 - 

IV - Cedar River, English River System 

This area was believed to be the most important waterfowl 
breeding area within the accessible portion of the district. Also 
it is here that most waterfowl hunting is done. The survey revealed 
a much larger breeding population of waterfowl here than in any other 
area flown. 

TABLE IV - Waterfowl Observations Cedar River, English River System 





American 

Merganser 

9 
93 

9 

7.5 


American 
Goldeneye 

1 
22 

115 
22 

5.1 


Mallard 

5 

23 

5 

6 


Black 
2 


Ring-neck 

1 

2 

19 

1 

2 i 


Unidentified 


Male 
Female 
Sex ? 
Brood 
Average 
Size 


36 


Total 


170 




— 






Grand 
Total 


545 









Approximately 165 miles of shoreline were flown; therefore, 
3.3 ducks were seen / mi.. If mergansers were excluded this figure 
would be reduced to 2.27 mi.. 

Undoubtedly this is our most important accessible breeding 
area. Also due to extensive areas of waterfowl food ripened by the 
fall this area does lure a good number of waterfowl to stop over 
during the hunting season. 

TABLE V - Overall Waterfowl Picture 





American 

Merganser 

4 

27 

192 

23 

6.5 
372 


American 
Goldeneye 


Mallard 

2 
13 
51 
10 

4*4 


Black 

1 

1 
5 


Ri: 


ng-neck 

2 

5 

27 

3 

2.3 


Un: 


identified 


Male 
Female 
Sex ? 
Brood 
Average 
Size 


1 

33 

219 

32 

5 




1 

61 

2 

3.5 


Total 


414 




120 


7 




41 




69 


No. /mi. 
shorelin 


e c5# 
1023 


• 


65 


.19 


.011 




.064 






Grand 

Total 







- 31 - 

The American Goldeneye appears to be the most common 
nesting waterfowl species in this area,, From a shooters point of 
view the mallard is second in importance with ring-necks and blacks 
a poor 3rd and 4th respectively. 

It is interesting to note the difference between brood sizes 
of Mergansers, Goldeneyes, and Mallards as observed at this time. 
These three species lay S-12 eggs on the average but I believe due 
to the habits of ducklings of different species survival rates are 
higher in some species than in others. 

The differences, I believe are as follows. 

The American merganser is a bird of the more open, deeper 
water, even as a duckling. In this type of water the birds are not 
as susceptible to musky or pike predation as the mallard for instance. 
Also, when alarmed, merganser ducklings usually patter along the 
surface of the water rather than dive in contrast to the goldeneye. 
It is my belief that birds moving on the surface are less susceptible 
to fish predation than are birds which are swimming underwater. For 
these reasons the survival rate of mergansers is higher than other 
species in our pike and musky lakes of Sioux Lookout District. 

The American goldeneye is also a bird of the open waters 
but not to the same extent as the American merganser. I believe 
young goldeneyes are more susceptible to predation by fish than the 
former species due to the habit of diving when danger approaches. 

The Mallard is most susceptible to fish predation due to the 
habit of feeding in shallow weedy areas which areas are also 
excellent pike or musky habitat. 

From the findings of this brief inventory I believe some 
conclusions can be drawn. 



i 

— 






Local breeding birds add very little to the waterfowl hunters 
bag in this district. 

2. Among game ducks sought by hunters the American Goldeneye is the 
most common breeder in this area. 

3. Brood survival of pond ducks is not as high as in lake inhabiting 
diving ducks (ring-necks excepted due to small sample) probably 
due to the fact that few lakes are without pike or muskies. 

4. To improve waterfowl hunting in this area the best place to aim 

a program would be in the direction of improvement of fall feeding 
areas. This would lure in the flocks of ducks from the northern 
muskeg areas and perhaps hold them around our hunted areas for 
longer periods of time during the hunting season. 

A cknowl edgment s 

Mr. Ben Kent the helicopter pilot for Dominion Helicopters 
was most cooperative and without his full cooperation this survey 
would not have been possible. 






- 32 - 

WATERFOWL CENSUS, WKITEFISH LAKE, 
PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT 

by 
Pater Nunan 



Whitefish Lake is considered the best lake for duck hunting 
in the Port Arthur District. This is due to the abundance of wild 
rice, and many other aquatic plants giving good feed and shelter. 
The only other locations where ducks can be hunted with any amount 
of success are Hurkett, also known as Cranberry Bay, and in the 
vicinity of the elevators in Port Arthur and Fort William. 

This census was started on September 14th with the opening 
day of hunting of Migratory Birds. On the opening day all hunters 
were checked and given census cards to fill in. Few hunters showed 
interest in filling in the cards, either on the lake after hunting 
or at home, for forwarding to the District Office. Approximately 
10$ of the issued cards were completed and returned to the Department 

The following information was obtained from census cards 
returned by hunterss 

Species Number Taken Percentage Taken 

Ring-neck 15 13 

Scaup (Bluebill) 3 5 30 

Mallard 22 19 

Blacks # 7 

Goldeneye 9 8 

Blue-winged Teal 19 17 

Green-winged Teal ) 

Pintail ) „ z 

Scoter 

Geese 



The following is a sample card, including totals from all 
cards received from hunterss 



- 33 - 



Location - Whitefish Lake 



Specie s 



Month 
Day- 



Sept ember 14 to 
December 15 



Number 



Ring-neck 




15 


Number in Parties . . . ... 91 


Scaup (Bluebill) 


35 




Mallard 




22 




Blacks 




8 




Goldeneye 


Teal 


9 
19 


Gauge of Gun Used 


Blue-winged 

Redhead 

Bufflehead 


12 16 20 28 410 
89 9 1 1 1 


Mergansers 




- 




Baldpate 




- 


Number of Shots Fired by Party 575 


Pintail 




1 




Scoter 




1 




Canvasback 




- 




Shoveler 




- 


Weathers 


Ruddy Duck 




- 


Clear Raining 


Wood Duck 




- 


Cloudy Windy 


Old Squaw 




- 




Gadwall 




«w 


Observations s 


Green-winged 


Teal 


3 




Geese 




2 




Other 




- 


Remarks? 


Coot 




— 




Other 




- 





On the cards, the species of fowl most common in the Port 
Arthur District were shown at the top of the list with the less 
common species listed below. All waterfowl listed on the census 
cards have been taken in this District. 

Average number of ducks taken per hunter 1.26 

Average number of hours hunted per hunter 2.91 

Average number of ducks taken per hour ... » .43 

Average number of shots per hunter 6.32 

Average number of shots per duck 5.00 

The weather affected duck hunting as follows; 

Weather Conditions No. of Ducks Killed Percentage of Ducks Killed 

Clear 35 30.4 

Raining 6 5.2 

Cloudy 37 32.2 

Raining and Windy 6 5.2 

Cloudy and Windy 7 6.1 

Clear and Windy 24 20.9 



- 34 - 



Conclusions^ 






1. It is planned to carry out this census again next year, when a 
greater effort will be made to have hunters fill out and return 
cards to Department staff. 

2. Duck hunting is not the best in the Port Arthur District as many 
ducks are local stock, and leave feeding grounds for small ponds 
when hunting starts. 

3. In this area we are not on a flyway, but it is thought that we 
get a cross flight to both the Atlantic and the Mississippi 
flyways. These ducks are both northern and local, funneling 
into their flyways toward winter feeding grounds. It is 
believed in this area that the diving ducks take the Atlantic 
flyway and the pond ducks the Mississippi. 

4. Two Geese were reported killed from a flock of Snows and Blues 
that stayed over night. 

Acknowledgments 

Many thanks to Dr. A. E. Allin, District Pathologist, for 
his assistance in drawing up census cards and his theory on flyways. 
Thanks also to R. A. Ryder, District Biologist. 



- 35 - 

LAKE ERIE DISTRICT HUNTER DAG CHECKS 

compiled by 
L. J. Stock 

Hunting Statistics 1957 - Part I 

TABLE I - Hunter Success on Opening Day of the Pheasant Season , 



Welland Essex 

District and and Central 

Total Lincoln Haldimand Kent District 



No. of Hunters 
Res. ) 
Non-Res. ) ratl ° 
Total Checked 


210 
310 
642 




58 
116 
233 




56 

71 

127 




96 
123 
219 




63 


Total Hours Hunted 


1900 




647 




593 




511 




144 


Total Cocks Shot - 
All Hunters 


293 




35 




50 




143 




10 


Cocks Per Hunter 


0. 


46 


0. 


37 


0. 


39 


0, 


63 


0.16 


Cocks Per Hunter Hour 


0. 


15 


0. 


13 


0. 


03 


0. 


29 


0.02 


Cripples Lost - Number 


49 




17 




- 




31 




1 


Percent of Total Shot 


14 




17 




- 




17 




9 


Game Observed - Cocks 


701 




235 




126 




331 




35 


- Hens 


664 




243 




100 




390 




31 


- Rabbits 


25^ 




65 




- 




145 




43 


Cocks Per Hen Observed 


1. 


1 


1. 


2 


- 




0.93 


1.1 


Cocks Per Rabbit Observed 


2. 


7 


4. 


4 


- 




2. 


6 


0.73 


Rabbits Observed Per 

Hunter - 273 by 515 
hunters 


0. 


54 
















Parties Using Dogs - Yes 


123 




53 




- 




53 




12 


-s 


40 




63 








60 




46 


- No 


35 




35 








36 




14 



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- 37 - 

TABLE IV - Hunting Success - Waterfowl, 1957 

Summary for the Entire Season Less Opening Day . 



No. of Hunters checked 
Total Hunter Hours 
Total Ducks Bagged 
Ducks Per Hunter 
Ducks Per Hunter Hour 
Cripples Lost 
Percent Loss (of total 



shot) 



Long 


Lake 


Inland 


District 


Point 


St. Clair 


Waters 


Total 


355 


148 


85 


540 


1111 


457 


221 


17^9 


785 


504 


209 


1493 


2.2 


3.4 


2.5 


2.3 


0.7 


1.1 


0.9 


0.8 


120 


100 


21 


241 


13.3 


16.5 


9.1 


13.8 



Statistics for opening day were compiled and circulated in a 
separate report. 



TABLE V - Separate Report of Shooting in Private Marshes 
Long Point from Oct. 6 to Dec. 9 
Turkey Point from Oct. 5 to Nov. 31 



No. of Hunters 
Total Hunter Hours 
Total Ducks Bagged 
Ducks Per Hunter 
Ducks Per Hunter Hour 
Cripples Lost 
Percent Loss 



Long Point 


200 




800 




1400 




7. 


,0 


1. 


.75 


5. 


,0 



Notes Hunters at Long Point numbered 4 or 5 each day 

Species bagged (Long Point) - Mallard 3 50 

Baldpate 140 



Piedhead 
Scaup 



:8o 
70 



Species bagged (Turkey Point - Mallard 123 

Shoveler 1 
Black 225 
B.W. Teal 6 
Canvasback 26 
Ruddy 5 



Turkey 


Point 


. 88 




460 




637 




7. 


2 


1. 


14 


Ill 




14. 


3 




Pintail 


140 


Black 


3 50 


Canvasback 


: 70 


Pintail 


61 


Baldpate 


144 


B.W. Teal 


19 


Redhead 


21 


Scaup 


6 



- 33 - 

TABLE VI - Species Composition of the Bag for the Entire District 
All Season. 



Species 

Mallard 

Pintail 

Shoveler 

Baldpate 

Gadwall 

Black Duck 

B.W. Teal 

G.W. Teal 

Wood Duck 

Redhead 

Canvasback 

Scaup 

Ringneck 

Goldeneye 

Bufflehead 

Ruddy 

Mergansers 

TOTAL 



Number Shot 

1403 

298 

4 

523 

45 

1160 

384 
147 
6.3 
536 
241 
200 

3 
12 

5 

45 

8 

5032 



Percent of Bag 

27.5 
5.9 

11.3 

0.9 
12.3 

7.6 

2.9 
1.3 
11.5 
4.7 
3.9 



0.9 



Comments 

On opening day non-residents outnumbered resident hunters 
three to two. 

The number of cocks shot per hunter on opening day was more 
than double that shot the following Saturday when the rabbit season 
opened. However, pheasants and rabbits combined on the second 
Saturday provided exactly the same hunter success as pheasants on 
opening day and rabbits comprised slightly more than 50% of the bag. 

The number of rabbits seen per hunter was exactly the same 
on the opening day of pheasant season as on the opening day of the 
rabbit season. 

On October 26, 2.7 cocks were seen for every rabbit. 

More rabbits were shot per hunter hour after the close of 
the pheasant season than during the pheasant shoot. In fact, the 
rabbit hunters shot as many rabbits throughout the entire season as 
they saw during the pheasant season. This indicates some hunter 
preference, and that while pheasant and rabbit ranges overlap, good 
pheasant range is not all good rabbit range. 

It was a good year for cottontails. They provided good 
hunting for four months, and hunters averaged slightly more than 
one rabbit for two hours hunting. 



- 39 - 

Squirrels were relatively scarce in the bag at 1.15 per 
hunter, although plentiful in the woods. The season was late and 
cold, and inadequate numbers taken. 

Hungarian partridge provided better hunting than the figure 
indicates. Eight coveys were reported by hunters^ the total count 
was 100 birds - an average of 12.5 per covey. 

The potential of the bob-white is indicated by the number 
seen per hunter (6.7) • 

Duck hunters in private marshes enjoyed much better shoot- 
ing than those who hunted elsewhere. Many of the marsh owners and 
managers have erected a duck sanctuary in the marsh, and have res- 
tricted the number of hunters. They allow shooting on three or four 
days a week at specified hours. The result of this management is 
evident in the hunter success shown in Tables IV and V. 



Hunting Statistics 1957 - Part II 

Time and Miles of Travel to Check Pheasant Hunters 

On October 26, the opening day of the pheasant season, 
165 hunters were checked in 363 miles - an average of 2.2 miles per 
hunter. 

On the same day 762 hunters were checked in 106 man-hours 
- an average of 7.2 hunters per hour. 

During the remainder of the pheasant season (12 days) 163 
hunters were checked in 1153 miles - an average of 7o2 miles per 
hunter and 96 miles per day. 

After opening day it was necessary to travel almost three 
times as far to check the same number of pheasant hunters. 

During the same 12 days, 493 hunters were checked in 262 
man hours - an average of 1.9 hunters per hour. This is at the 
rate of almost 4 times the time required to check a hunter on opening 
day. 

Cost of Checking Hunters 

Based on a mileage cost of 10 cents a mile, two dollars 
per man hour and meals at two dollars per day per man. 



- 40 - 

October 26 - Opening Day o f the Season 

flUllLGrS CneCKOQ O.OO0.Q..O0.OOO0OOO0O.0...O..4O j.Dp 

iuXJ.es br3.V611GQ .eooe«osa«o.»**i*e*i.ose«..a»eo.o J^J 

Mileage cost per hunter . » . , e . » s e * c o ° . s . . => o . . 0,22 

Man hours of checking (762 hunters) •••« 106 

Salary (@ $2.00 per hour) •■•••••••••••a 212.00 

Meals (@ $2.00 per day) .• ••••• 27»Q0 

1 O U d _L ••oo«coooooooooocaca«cc^oooooaov r oQ*oooooo <j])C^ 7 o UU 

Total cost per hunter checked • .............. . . $0.53 

Total cost per bird checked (O.46 birds per 

nUllTj er / ...••..oo..eeo....«oa».«*«soa.<>.a V-i- • -J- J 

- Remainder of P h easant Season (12 hunting days). 

rlu.llOUr S CllGCKGCl aooco»e>ooeocoooeoooooc««*oo»oco XOj; 

r'ii.l'3S urdVGllGQ eo»eooo*«ooooooo«ooo«c*«*o*«<>«o _L _L ^) ^ 

Mileage cost per hunter ...... e ••« c .... . $0.72 

Man hours of checking (49$ hunters) 262 

Salaries (@ $2.00 per hour) ...>.o..e<>».. ....... $524«00 

Meals (@ $2.00 per man day) . . . 66.00 

Cost per hunter «,...... o .. e .<■. e , 1.1$ 

Total cost per hunter .. ..<>.. .oe $1.90 

Total cost per bird (0.4 birds per hunter) .... $4«75 

In the above expenses are included Conservation Officers 
working along or in pairs and the time of Deputy Conservation 
Officers. The latter are unpaid which fact will reduce the cost of 
checking. However, the time of the Deputies has not been segregated 
in this instance. 



- 41 - 



1956-1957 Statistics - Pheasants and Rabb its 

PART I - Hunter Success - Pheasants only - Octo 27-Nov. 2. 



Total hunters checked 
Total hours hunted 
Total cocks bagged 
Cocks bagged per hunter 
Cocks bagged per hunter-hour 



Pheasants 

1365 

2619 
601 
0,44 
0.24 



Rabbits 



Pheasants 

& Rabbits 

Total 



PART II - Hunter Success Nov, 3 only - Overlap of pheasant and 
rabbit season for one day . 

Total hunters checked 
Total hours hunted 
Total bagged 
Bagged per hunter 
Bagged per hunter-hour 



467 






£03 






393 


226 


604 


0.72 


Oo57 


1.29 


0.42 


0.33 


0.75 



Above table includes combined figures for Essex, Kent, 
Lincoln and Welland only. Part I shows hunter success for the first 
six days of the pheasant season. Part II shows hunter success for 
the last day when both rabbits and pheasants were shot. Note that 
the pheasant success on the last day was almost double the average 
for the first six. Rabbit success is only 22$ below the figure for 
pheasants. Rabbits and pheasants on the last day provided over three 
times the bag per hunter hour than did pheasants on the first six 
days. 



- 42 r 



Hunting Statistics 1956- 57 - Pheasant s 



Entire Kent & Lincoln 

District Essex & Welland Haldimand 



No. Hunters-Res. 
No. Hunters-Res. 

Total Hunters Checked 
Total Hours Hunted 
Total Birds Bagged 
Cocks Seen but Not Shot 
Hens Seen but Not Shot 
Total Birds Seen 

Parties Using Dogs - Yes 

- No 

- Total 

Percent Using Dogs 
Cocks Bagged-Per Hunter 
Cocks Bagged Per Hunter Hr, 

Birds Seen Per Hunter Hr. 

- Cocks 

- Hens 

- Total 



Cock/Hen Ratio (All birds seen) 1.1 
Crippling Loss No. Hunters 



1051 




276 




393 




106 


1031 




169 




527 




61 - 


2088 




445 




920 




167 


4354 




705 




1924 




740 


1099 




233 




368 




141 


2731 




515 




1017 




407 


3491 




856 




1383 




161 


7321 




1604 




2768 




709 


453 




85 




220 




43 


258 




66 




118 




2 


711 




151 




338 




45 


64 




56 




65 




95 


0o 


52 


0. 


52 


0. 


40 


0.85 


0. 


25 


0. 


33 


0, 


19 


0.19 


0. 


SS 


1. 


06 


0. 


77 


0.74 


0. 


80 


1. 


21 


0. 


72 


0.24 


1. 


68 


2. 


28 


1. 


44 


0.96 



0.87 



1.07 



3.40 



Reporting 




1532 


445 


920 


167 


Total Hrs. Hunted 




3369 


705 


1924 


740 


Total Birds Bagged 




742 


233 


368 


141 


Total Birds Lost 




89 


17 


36 


36 


Percent Birds Lost 




10.7 


6.8 


8.9 


20.3 


Res. to Non-Res. ratio 


lsl 


1.6; 


1 0.75s 


1 1.74.1 


No. of 


Hunters 


Total Hrs. 


Total 


Bag Per 


Parties 


Res. N 


on-Res. 


Hunted 


Bag. 


Hunter Hr. 


Using Dogs 


Cottontail 






(not inclu- 












ding Nov. 3) 126 


83 


551 


67 


0.38 


45.-50$ 


European 












Hare 244 


189 


823 


74 


0.09 




Squirrels 75 


73 


371 


139 


0.37 




Hungarian 












Partridge 17 




59 


11 


0.19 


5=100$ Av. 

covey 

size-»8 



- 43 - 



Cottontail 



In area 1, Roy I'luna continued his special project to obtain 
the total kill and the population index. A survey of 100 hunters 
resulted in the following information. Kill per acre 0.59s P er 
sq. mile 378° total 114? 553 o 

This represents an increased total bag over 1956 of 44 
percent. Rabbits were abundant, hunting heavy, and conditions good. 
There is sufficient breeding stock for the coming season. 

European Hare 

In area 1, Roy Muma carried on a survey of 100 hunters 
to obtain the total kill and a population index. Results were as 
follows s- 

Kill per licence sold 1.34; per acre 0.05? per sq. mile-32. 



Hunting Statistics - Wat erf owl » 1957 - Openin g D ay October 5 



1957 


Long 




r 

Grand 


Welland 


Lake St. 


Essex 


District 




Point 


Rondeau 


River 


County 


Clair 


County 


Totals 


No. of 




Hunters 
















Checked 


188 


168 


84 


90 


34 


311 


875 


Total 
















Hunter 
















Hours 


1069 


824 


473 


165 


125 


1553 


4209 


Total 
















Ducks 
















Bagged 


462 


344 


205 


46 


176 


314 


1547 


Ducks 
















Per 
















Hunter 


2 o 4 


2.0 


2 . 4 


0.51 


5.2 


1.0 


1.77 


Ducks 
















Per 
















Hunter 
















Hour 


0.43 


0.42 


0.43 


0.36 


1.4 


0.22 


0.37 


1956 










Ducks 
















Per 
















Hunter 
















Hour 


0.98 


0.59 




0.54 






0.57 



Sex Ratios Mallard (287 birds) AMsAF - 1.1.6 
Black ( 52 birds) AMsAF - 1.3.1 

Production Mallard (287 birds) Juv.AF - 2.3 
Black ( 52 birds) Juv.aF - 2.0 

Hunters Using Dogs (68 parties reporting) 

Cripples Lost (percent of total shot) 10.4$ 



- 44 - 



Species C o mposition of the Bag Entire Dis trict 

Number Shot 



Mallard 


630 


Pintail 


33 


Shoveler 


1 


Baldpate 


61 


Gadwall 


43 


Black 


313 


B, W. Teal 


292 


G. W. Teal 


33 


Wood Duck 


21 


Redhead 


13 


Canvasback 


10 


Scaup 


33 


Ruddy 


3 


Merganser 


1 


TOTAL 


1547 


Canada Goose 


7 



Percent of the Bag 
' 1957 1956 



41 



IS 



20 23 

19 45 

5 9 



Increase 
+ 23 



- 3 

- 2.6 

- 4 



Ducks bagged per hunter hour declined from 0.57 to 0.37 o 
This was not due to a scarcity of birds, which were available in 
numbers equal to 1956, but to more widespread activities of the 
checking officers. Eight hundred and seventy-five hunters were 
contacted - an increase of 341 over the previous year. Included in 
this increase was a greater number of those who fired some 100 
shells to bag one duck, and shot at all birds within sight regardless 
of range or species. 

Generally, good hunters had a good bag as shown by the 
success on Lake St. Clair where the average bag was 5»2 birds. 
Essex County, Rondeau and Long Point also provided comparable shoot- 
ing. 

There was a marked change in the species comprising the 
bag. Mallards increased by 23 percent while B. W. Teal decreased 
26 percent. These changes are in accord with the overall reports 
that the local hatch of mallards was good and that teal were relati- 
vely scarce on opening day. 



- 45 - 



KENORA DISTRICT CREEL CENSUS, 1957 

compiled by 
P. Graham 



Introduction 

A creel census was carried out by Conservation Officers 
and other members of the Fish and Wildlife Division during the 1957 
fishing season. The method used was for Officers to check anglers, 
both while fishing and by means of road checks, during the perfor- 
mance of their regular duties. The results of the checks were entered 
on special cards. Unfortunately, due to different officers using 
different methods of estimating the average size, some used length, 
others weight, some estimated the size of the total catch and others 
only of those retained, this column could not be used in this 
compilation. A total of 12 cards of the 364 used were rejected 
because of incomplete information recorded on them. 

By far the greater number of anglers checked [&!%) were 
on the Lake of the Woods. 

In all, 352 parties comprising of 1010 anglers were checked. 
Following Fraser (1957)** the district has been divided into two 
sections, (l) the Lake of the Woods and (2) the Other Waters. 

I - The Lake of the Woods 

A total of 2$5 parties containing #37 anglers were checked 
on the Lake of the Woods. These anglers fished for a total of 
2762.41 hours or a mean of 9.6 hours per angler. They caught 5604 
fish giving an average of 2.02 fish per hour and 6.7 fish per angler. 
52$7 or 94.3% of these fish were of species regarded as game fish. 

The anglers retained 3029 or 54. 1% of all the fish they 
caught returning the rest to the water. Twenty-four parties (£.4$) 
were unsuccessful at the time of checking. 

The average angler on the Lake of the Woods fished in a 
party of 2.93 anglers for 9.6 hours and caught 6.7 fish of which 
94.3% were game fish at a rate of 2.02 fish per hour. 

TABLE I - 

No. of No. of No. of No. of Percent of Fish/ Fish/ 
Anglers Hours Fish Game Fish Game Fish Hours Anglers 

837 2762.41 5604 5237 94.3 2.02 6.7 



The catch comprised of eight species of fish of which 
five were game species. 



* Creel Census - Kenora District, 1955. Fish and Wildlife Mgt. 
Report #37, October 1, 1957. 



- 46 - 

Wa lleye s This species is by far the most important in the lake, 

3645 walleyes were taken by the anglers checked. This makes up 65% 

of the total catch checked. The anglers retained 2194 or 60.2% of 
walleyes caught in this lake. 

Northern Pike s This is the second most important species in the 
lake forming 17% of the catch checked. 956 pike were checked and 
of these 497 or 52% were retained. 

Maskinonge s Only three muskies were checked in this census and of 
these only one was of legal size and so retained. 

S mallmouth Bass; This species formed 3.3% of the catch checked. 
493 bass were checked and only 152 or 30. 3% were retained. This 
species does not seem to be sought after in this lake. 

Lake Trout g One hundred and ninety-one lake trout were caught by 
anglers checked. This makes only 3*4% of the total catch. Eighty- 
one or 46.3% of these were retained. Lake trout are not widely 
distributed in the Lake of the Woods and are caught mainly by anglers 
specifically fishing for them. 

O thers ; Non game species formed 5°7% of the total catch, 317 of 
these fish were caught comprising of three species. Of these 193 
were perch, 33 crappies and 31 saugers. A few perch and 36 crappies 
were retained. 

It is possible that some of the walleyes retained were 
actually aaugers, as many anglers cannot distinguish between these 
closely related species. 

TABLE II - Species Caught 

Total % No./ 

No. Re- No. Re- Chec- % Re- Total No,/ Ang- 
Species tained leased ked tained Catch Hrs. lers 



'Walleye 


2194 


1451 


3645 


60.8 


65 


1.31 


4.36 


Northern Pike 


497 


459 


956 


52.0 


17 


0.34 


1.14 


Maskinonge 


1 


2 


3 


33.3 


0.05 


- 


- 


Smallmouth Bass 


152 


341 


493 


30.3 


8.8 


0.17 


0.53 


Lake Trout 


89 


101 


190 


46,3 


3.4 


0.06 


0.22 


Others 


96 


221 


317 


30.3 


5.7 


0.1 


0.37 



II - Other Waters 



The sample of anglers from other waters is less satis- 
factory. Only 67 parties comprising 173 anglers were checked. 

These fished for 463 hours and caught 1037 fish. They 
had an angling success of 2.23 fish per hour and 5.99 fish per 
angler, which is not significantly different from angling success on 
the Lake of the Woods. The mean number of anglers per party was 
2.53 almost the same as in the Lake of the Woods. The average time 
fished, however, was only 6.91 hours as opposed to 9<>69 hours on the 
Lake of the Woods. 



TABLE III - 



- 47 - 



No. of 
Anglers 


No. of 
Hours 

463 


No. of 
Fish 

1037 


No. of 
Game Fish 

1027 


$ of Game 
Fish 


Fish/ 
Hours 

2.23 


Fish/ 
Anglers 


173 


99 


5.99 



Almost all fish caught in these waters were game fish. 
Six species were taken. 

Walleyes This species was again the most important forming 37$ of 
the total catch checked. Three hundred and eighty-nine walleyes 
were checked of which 226 or 53.1$ were retained. This fish is of 
less importance in these waters than in the Lake of the Woods being 
partially replaced by lake trout as the most sought after fish. 

Northern Pike ; This fish is the second most important species in 
the catch with 300 checked making 23.9$ of the total caught. Only 
96 or 31.3$ of these, however, were retained. This fish, therefore, 
does not seem to be sought after in these waters as much as in the 
Lake of the 



Woods 



Maskinonge g No maskinonge were checked in these waters. 

Smallmouth 3ass ° Judging by the percentage of the total catch, i.e. 
97 bass or 9.3% of the total catch checked, bass seemed to be much 
of the same importance in numbers caught in these waters as in the 
Lake of the Woods. However, since 57 bass or 53.4$ of these were 
retained as opposed to 30. 3% in the Lake of the Woods. Anglers 
fishing the smaller waters seem to find bass more desirable than 
those in the Lake of the Woods. 

L ake Trout ; In these waters the species is of much greater importance 
than in the Lake of the Woods, 241 being caught, forming 23.2$ of 
the total checked, 121 or 50.2$ were retained. 

O thers g Fishes other than game fish formed only 1$ of the total in 
these waters, a total of 10 fish, 9 perch and 1 whitefish being 
caught. Three perch were retained. 



TABLE IV - 






Total 




$ 




Mo./ 




No. Re- 


No. Re- 


Chec- 


$ Re- 


Total 


No./ 


Ang- 


Species 


tained 
226 


leased 
163 


ked 
339 


tained 
53.1 


Catch 
37.5 


Hrs. 
0.34 


lers 


Walleye 


2.24 


Northern Pike 


94 


206 


300 


31.3 


23.9 


0.64 


1.73 


Maskinonge 























Smallmouth Bass 


57 


40 


97 


53.3 


9.3 


0.2 


0.56 


Lake Trout 


121 


120 


241 


50.2 


23.2 


0.52 


1.4 


Others 


3 


7 


10 


30.0 


1.4 


0.02 


0.05 



- 4S - 

Dis cussion 

Since this method was used for the first time in 1957, the 
results are not strictly comparable to those obtained earlier by 
Fraser,, (op. cit.). 

The angler success in 1957 shown is double that shown by 
Fraser for 1954 and 1955, when only about one fish per hour was 
obtained by about 1230 anglers fishing for 7,500 hours. A higher 
percentage of bass and lake trout were recorded in the present 
census in all waters. 

It is felt that though the number of anglers checked is 
smaller in the present method, it gives a better random sample of 
the fishing effort than do methods based on the return of question- 
naires from guides, outfitters, etc. Also the previous method may 
only have taken into account those fish kept and not those released. 
If this is so, then the fishing effort becomes more comparable. 



- 49 - 

A CREEL CENSUS OF THE GULL BAY AREA, 
POUT AHTHUk DISTRICT, 1957. 

by 
C. A, Rettie 



The area included in this census consists of an area of 
roughly $00 square miles immediately west of Chief Bay, Black 
Sturgeon Bay and Kaiashk Bay, more commonly known as Gull Bay, of 
Lake Nipigon and immediately north of the Great Lakes Concession of 
the Black Sturgeon area. All the network of lakes and streams drain 
eastward into Lake Nipigon „ 

The majority of lakes and streams are natural pickerel and 
pike habitat although lake trout and speckled trout are found in 
some waters . Smallmouth bass occur sparsely in Lake Nipigon and 
yellow perch are found in most of the lakes. 

This area is accessible by one road only which leaves 
Highway 17 at Hurkett and runs in a northerly direction approximately 
100 miles through the Black Sturgeon limits of the Great Lakes Paper 
Company, the limits of the Great Lakes Lumber and Shipping Company 
and ends at Jackinnes Lake, This road was constructed by these 
companies for their woodlands operations. In 1949 this area was 
closed to outside traffic by a gate, attended at all times by a 
watchman, located near the southern boundary of the Great Lakes 
Paper Company limits. 

From 1949 to 1956 the only sportsmen in this area were a 
few of the woods workers who worked in the area camps plus a few 
outsiders who managed to find means of entrance. During the spring 
of 1956 the area was again open to the public and many people made 
use of this privilege. However, the majority of sportsmen chose to 
fish in the waters closest to the Highway, that is in the Great 
Lakes Concession of the Black Sturgeon area. Some continued north 
to fish the area included in this survey. 

Since all persons entering this area must pass through 
the Great Lakes gate, every party of fishermen was given a creel 
census card for each day's fishing and each water to be fished. 
These cards were collected again on their departure. When all cards 
were collected and tabulated, we were able to separate the sportsmen 
who fished the Black Sturgeon area from those who fished the area 
included in this survey. It was found that in 1956 an insignificant 
number of fishermen entered this area and no report was made. 
However the number of fishermen in 1957 greatly increased making 
this census more representative of the area. 

The object of the survey, as in the neighboring Black 
Sturgeon Creel Census was to determine catch-effort statistics, 
compare them over a period of years and by this determine the effects 
of fishing pressure in the area. 



- 50 - 

The first person to enter this area for the sole purpose 
of angling did so on May 17. Fishing was carried on all summer with 
little interference. Only for the period of 3 days were people 
refused admittance because of the high fire hazard. Those already 
in the area were allowed to remain and continue their sport. The 
survey ended on September 30, 

a total of five waters including Lake Nipigon were reported 
as being fished. These are all waters that are accessible by car, 
being located along the main road or on logging roads close to the 
main road. Lake Nipigon is accessible at two points, one place at 
Chief Bay and the other at Gull Bay, No outfitters are present in 
this area so that all equipment and food must be transported in by 
the sportsmen. Therefore the boats used were all of the small out- 
board variety. Because of this the fishing in Lake Nipigon was 
confined largely to Gull Bay and Chief Bay with only a few of the 
more daring fishermen venturing out into the main lake. 



Lake 
Ilipigon 




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- 54 - 
TABLE III - Fishing Success, Gull Bay Area - 1957 . 



Fish Per Hour Pickerel Per Hour Pike Per Hour 



Jackinnes Lake 


1.3 


0.6 


0.7 


Voltaire Lake 


0.4 


0.2 


0.2 


Poshkokagan River 


0.9 


0.4 


0.5 


Kabitotikwia Lake 


1.2 


0.5 


0.7 


Nipigon Lake 


0.7 


0.2 


0.5 


All Waters 


0.9 


0.4 


0.5 



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TABLE V - Comparison Tabl e 



- 56 - 



Black Sturgeon 


Gull Bay 


Area, 1957 


Area, 1957 


6,0 


6.6 


4.3 


5.9 


1.6 


2.4 


3.2 


3.4 


0.7 


0.9 


0.2 


0.4 


0.5 


0.5 


5.4$ 


4.3$ 


33.0$ 


32.4% 


32.2% 


15.2% 


14.1$ 


IS. 4$ 


15.2$ 


29. 2% 



Fishing hours per angler 

Average number of fish per angler 

Average number of pickerel per angler 

Average number of pike per angler 

Average number of fish per hour 

Average number of pickerel per hour 

Average number of pike per hour 

Fishing pressure May 
Fishing pressure June 
Fishing pressure July 
Fishing pressure August 
Fishing pressure September 



From this table we see that the Gull Bay area had a slight lead 

over the Black Sturgeon Area per unit of effort although both sets of 

figures bear a close resemblance. 

Acknowledgment 3 

Many thanks are again due the Great Lakes Paper Company 
gatemen who distributed and collected all creel cards. 

C onclusions 

1. Pickerel and pike are the main species attracting anglers to the 
Gull Bay area. 

2. Pickerel fishing may be considered only fair in this area, 
(0.4 pickerel per hour) with July being the best month (0.6 
pickerel per hour) and September the poorest month (0.1 per 
hour) . Jackiness Lake produced the most pickerel per hour 
with 0.6 fish. 

3. Pike fishing may be considered only fair in this area (0.5 per 
hour) with May and June being the better months (0.6 per hour) 
and July the poorest (0.4 per hour). Jackinnes and Kabitotikwia 
Lakes produced the most pike per hour with 0.7 fish each. 

4. All other species form only an insignificant part of the creel 
except in a very few individual catches. 

5. Fishing pressure in this area is increasing greatly but I 
believe it may yet be classed as light. Many lakes are not 
fished at all because of the lack of access roads. 



6, 



I believe future creel census in this area would be valuable 
as a check on fishing pressure and fish populations. 



1 

} 



) 

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